Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms associated with Fairly Used Clothes (Okirika) sold in Eke Awka Market, Anambra State.


  • M. I. Ikeh Public Health and Environmental Research Group (PUHEREG)
  • P. N. Chukwujekwu Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka
  • C. O. Ishar Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka



Isolation, Plate count, Protozoa, Fungi, Bacteria, Fairly used clothes


The use of previously worn clothing poses a risk of transmitting infectious diseases as the history of previous users is unknown. Despite this, used clothes are commonly sold as they are cheaper compared to new ones. Research was carried out to investigate the presence of pathogenic microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and protozoa in used clothes bought at Eke Awka Market in Anambra State, Nigeria. A variety of clothing items, including trousers, shirts, caps, bras, panties, baby clothes, towels, socks, head ties, and bed sheets were purchased and analysed for the presence of contaminating microbes. Techniques such as culture and plate count methods were used for the isolation of these microorganisms, and further identification was done through morphological and biochemical methods. Additionally, protozoa were specifically isolated through a washing method, which involved centrifuging the samples at 500g for 10 minutes and then observing the sediments under a microscope. The study found microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus spp, Rhodoborula spp, Candida glabrata and Entamoeba coli on the clothes examined. The highest number of bacteria isolates (2.00±0.000) were from caps and socks while the least (1.00±0.000) were from bras and bed sheets. The highest number of fungi isolates (2.50±0.707) were from trousers, bras, and baby cloths while shirts, socks, and bed sheets had the least number of fungi isolates (1.00±0.000). The only protozoan isolate was found in socks. In terms of colonies formed per unit, panties
had the most colony-forming units (132.5±10.607) for fungi and (63.5±4.95) for bacteria organisms while caps had the least (16±1.414) for fungi and (8.5±2.121) for bacteria organisms, respectively. It is important to note that used clothes can act as a bearer of harmful bacteria for the epidermis and other diseases and should, whenever possible, be washed and sanitized thoroughly before use.


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How to Cite

Ikeh, M. I., Chukwujekwu, P. N., & Ishar, C. O. (2024). Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms associated with Fairly Used Clothes (Okirika) sold in Eke Awka Market, Anambra State. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 45(1), 242–247.

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