Co-infections of Malaria and Hepatitis B among Pregnant Women in Igbo-Eze North LGA of Enugu State, Nigeria


  • N. F. Oparaku Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • E. S. Okwuonu Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • C. M. Eze Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • U. A. Ubaka Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
  • N. E. Ezenwaji Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.



Expectant mothers, Hepatitis B virus, Malaria, Prevalence, PCV


Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) and malaria infections pose serious health risks to the general population and may worsen victims' physical and financial well-being. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of HBV and malaria co-infections during LGA among expectant mothers. This study used a cross-sectional, prospective design. Blood samples were collected from both pregnant and non-pregnant women for parasitological and serological examinations in the study area. This was performed to compare the severity of infections between pregnant and non-pregnant women, as pregnant women are more susceptible to infections. The study included 50 women who attended antenatal care at the time of this project and 10 non-pregnant women who came to the hospitals for check-ups. Samples of people aged 18 to 52 years were collected. Age groups of 18-28 and 40-50 years had the greatest 30(50%) and lowest 8(13%) populations of women screened for malaria and hepatitis B co-infection, respectively. The 1st and 3rd trimesters were followed by the 2nd trimester, which had the highest prevalence. Only the second trimester had a 2% prevalence rate of hepatitis B. Farmers were the group most likely to contract malaria (92%). The percentage of government employees who had malaria and hepatitis B was the highest
(20%), followed by traders (5%). Ogrute, the seat of the Local Government had a high rate of malaria infection despite having several medical facilities and less farming activities. Olido (25%), followed by Ogrute (14 point 3%), had the highest rate of co-infection with hepatitis B and malaria. The PCV ranges of 25–27(100%) and 28–30(100%) had the highest prevalence of malaria. This study shows how persistent malaria and hepatitis B are also associated with decreased packed cell volume (PCV) in pregnant women.


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How to Cite

Oparaku, N. F., Okwuonu, E. S., Eze, C. M., Ubaka, U. A., & Ezenwaji, N. E. (2024). Co-infections of Malaria and Hepatitis B among Pregnant Women in Igbo-Eze North LGA of Enugu State, Nigeria . Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 45(1), 194–206.

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