Prevalence of Sarcocystis Species in Naturally Infected Ruminants and Pigs in Benue State, Nigeria

https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njpar.v44i1.17

Authors

  • H. I. Obadiah Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • O. Byanet College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Arizona, USA
  • O. Byanet College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Arizona, USA
  • M. E. Okoh Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • M. O. Ogbole Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • A. H. Vambe Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • V. A. Ede Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • U. L. Asuwe Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • J. P. Igbe Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • M. D. Yina Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • M. D. Yina Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • V. O. Onum Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • C. E. Odaji Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • J. Z. Imoni Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • B. E. Okopi Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • A. M. Igbalumun Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • K. M. Ikyausu, Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • B. O. Atu Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
  • E. A. Omudu Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

Keywords:

Benue State, Tissues, Pigs, Ruminants, Sarcocystis

Abstract

Sarcocystosis is a neglected food-borne disease, which affects domesticated and commercialized animals such as cattle, pigs
and goats and is of public health concern. This study was carried out during the dry season, to investigate the prevalence of
Sarcocystis species in Benue State. One thousand two hundred (1200) tissue samples, comprising of tongue, oesophagus,
heart and skeletal muscle were collected randomly from five hundred (500) cattle, five hundred (500) goats and two hundred
(200) pigs, respectively. Their ages ranged from <2 to > 2 years, both males and females. A gross examination of the four
organs was performed to detect macrocysts. The samples were subsequently, preserved in 10% formalin for histological
processing and staining using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. The processed tissues were examined under a
microscope, to detect microcysts. The results showed that there were no macrocysts in the tissues by observation with the
naked eye. However, microscopic results showed Sarcocysts shapes of two distinct types: elongated or fusiform and oval
with high intensity of up to 17 cysts in a sample. Of the 1200 tissues, 220 (18.33%) were infected with Sarcocystis species.
The infection rate in the animals showed that cattle and goats were 91 (18.20%) each and pigs 38 (19.00%), with no
significant difference (P=0.97). Also, there was no significant difference in sex, tissues, breed, and location (P>0.05), but the
infection was significantly associated with the age of the animals (P<0.05) when analysed generally. Parameters such as
location in cattle and pigs (P=0.04) and age in goats (0.0002) were significantly associated with infection. The results indicate
that Sarcocystisspecies infection is widely distributed in animals slaughtered for meat in Benue State. We, therefore, suggest
that further studies on molecular analysis be conducted to identify species of Sarcocystis that may be of economic and
zoonotic importance, to provide better control strategies in this region.

Purchase

References

Dubey, J. P. (2015). Foodborne and waterborne zoonotic sarcocystosis. Food and Waterborne Parasitology, 1:2–11.

Prakas, P. and Butkauskas, D. (2012). Protozoan parasites from Genus Sarcocystis and their investigations in Lithuania.

EKOLOGIJA, 58(1):45–58.

Fayer, R., Esposito, D. H. and Dubey, J. P. (2015). Human infections with Sarcocystis species. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 28(2):295-311.

Moré, G., Scharesa, S., Maksimov, A., Conrathsa, F. J., Venturini, M. C. and Schares, G. (2013). Development of a multiplex real-time PCR to differentiate Sarcocystis spp. affecting cattle. Veterinary Parasitology, 197:85– 94.

Dubey, J. P. and Lindsay, D. S. (2006). Neosporosis, toxoplasmosis and sarcocystosis in ruminants. Veterinary Clinical Food Animal, 22:645-671.

Chhabra, M. B. and Samantaray, S. (2013). Sarcocystis and sarcocystosis in India: status and emerging perspectives. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 37(1):1-10.

Gjerde, B., Luzón, M., Alunda, J. M. and Fuente, C. (2017). Morphological and molecular characteristics of six Sarcocystis spp. from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Spain, including Sarcocystis cervicanis and three new species. Parasitology Research, DOI 10.1007/s00436-017-5590-z

Moré, G., Abrahamovich. P., Jurado, S., Bacigalupe. D., Marin, J. C., Rambeaud, M., Venturini, L. and Venturini, M. C. (2011). Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in Argentinean cattle. Veterinary Parasitology, 177(1-2):162-165.

Minuzzia, C. E. Cezarb, A. S., Bräuniga, P., Portellaa, L. P., Rodriguesa, F. S., Sangionia, L. A., Vogel, F. S. F. (2019). Occurrence of Sarcocystis giganteamacrocysts and high frequency of S. tenella microcysts in sheep from Southern Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies

and Reports, 15: 100256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2018.12.002

Kirillova, V, Prakas, P., Calero-Bernal, R., Gavarāne, I., Fernández-García, J.L., Martínez- onzález, M., Rudaitytė- Lukošienė, E., Martínez-Estéllez, M. A. H., Butkauskas, D. and Kirjušina, M. (2018). Identification and Genetic Characterization of Sarcocystis arctica and Sarcocystis lutrae in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Baltic States and Spain. Parasites and Vectors, 11:173.

Olias, P., Gruber, A. D., Heydorn, A. O., Kohls, A., Mehlhorn, H., Hafez, H. M. and Lierz, M. (2009). A Novel Sarcocystisassociated encephalitis and myositis in Racing Pigeons. Avian Pathology, 38(2): 121-128.

Mac, P. A., Ibrahim, T. M., Buba, D. M., Airiohuodion, P. E. and Ambu, S. (2018). Prevalence of Sarcocystis Species in Meat of Cattle, Pigs and Birds Slaughtered in North Central Nigeria. Journal of VeterinaryScience and Medical Diagnosis, 7:5.

Wassermann, M., Raisch, L., Lyons, J.A., Natusch, D. J. D., Richter, S., Wirth, M., Preeprem, P., Khoprasert, Y., Ginting, S., Mackenstedt, U., and Jäkel, T. (2017). Examination of Sarcocystis spp. of giant snakes from Australia and Southeast Asia confirms presence of a known pathogen – Sarcocystis nesbitti. PLoS ONE, 12(11): e0187984.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187984

Gaglio, G., Ferrara, M. C., Giannetto, S. and Poglayen, G. (2012). Survey on wild boar (Sus scrofa) sarcocystosis in Sicily (Italy). Large Animal Review, 18:71-73.

Omer, S. A., Alzuraiq, A. A., Mohammed, O. B. (2017). Prevalence and Molecular Detection of Sarcocystisspp. Infection in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Biomedical Research, 28 (11): 4962-4965.

Saeed, M. A., Rashid, M. H., Vaughan, J. and Jabbar, A. (2018). Sarcocystosis in South American camelids: The state of play revisited. Parasites and Vectors, 11:146.

Dubey, J. P., Calero-Bernal, R.,Rosenthal, B. M., Speer, C. A. and Fayer, R. (2016). Sarcocystosis of animals and humans, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2nd edition.

Kudi, A. C., Aganga, A. O., Ogbogu, V. C. and Umoh, J. U. (1991). Prevalence of Sarcocystis species in sheep and goats in Northern Nigeria. Journal of TropicalLivestock Science, 44 (1):59-60.

Okita, F. O., Obadiah, H. I., Gyegweh, K. T., Okonkwo, A. A. and Azatyom, J. A.(2017). Survey of Sarcocystis speciesinfection in slaughtered goats in Makurdi metropolis. International Journal ofInfectious Diseases and Therapy, 2(1):4-8.

Omudu, E. A. and Amuta, E. U. (2007). Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria: Prevalence of ova in faecal and soil

samples and animal ectoparasites inMakurdi. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 78(1): 40–45.

Farhad, F. P., Mohammad, Y. and Karim, M. (2014). Molecular determination of abundance of infection with Sarcocystisspecies in slaughtered sheep of Urmia, Iran. Veterinary Research Forum, 5(3):1-69.

Al-Saadi, S. A. M., Kawther A. M., AlMussawi, and Muhammed, H. A. (2020). Molecular identification of Sarcocystis species infection in sheep in Karbala Governorate – Iraq. Medico-legal Update, 20(1):889-895.

Gill, G. W. (2010). Gill haematoxylin, first person account. Biotechnic&Histochemistry: official publication of the Biological Stain Commission, 85(1), 7–18. https://doi.org/10.3109/10520290903048376

Imre, K., D˘ar˘abus, G., Tˆırziu, E., Morariu, S., Imre, M., Plutzer, J., Boldea, M.V., and Morar, A. (2019). Sarcocystis spp. in Romanian slaughtered cattle: molecular characterization and epidemiological significance of the findings. Hindawi BioMed Research International,

https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4123154

Mavi, S. A., Teimouri, A., Mohebali, M., Yazdi, M. K. S., Shojaee, S., Rezaian, M., Salimi, M. and Keshavarz, H. (2020). Sarcocystis infection in beef and industrial raw beef burgers from butcheries and retail stores: A molecular microscopic study. Heliyon e04171, 6:1-5.

Metwally, D. M., Al-Otaibi, T. T., AlTuraiki, I. M., El-Khadragy, M. F. and Alajmi, R. A. (2020). Identification of Sarcocystis Spp. in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Riyadh and Dammam, Saudi Arabia, via histological and phylogenetic approaches. Animals, 1108(10):1-11.

Rooney, A. L., Limon, G., Vides, H., Cortez, A. and Guitian, J. (2014).Sarcocystis spp. In llamas (Lama glama) in Southern Bolivia: A cross sectional study of the prevalence, risk factors and loss in income caused by carcass downgrades. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 116(3):296–304.

Hamidi, R., Fazaeli,A. and Poornaki, A.M. (2020). The prevalence of infection of Sarcocystis species in cattle in Zanjan Province, Northwest Iran. VeterinaryScience, 5(12): 01-06.

Gareh, A., Soliman, M., Saleh, M. A., ElGohary, F. A., El-Sherbiny, H. M. M., Mohamed, R. H. and Elmahallawy, E. K. (2020). Epidemiological and histopathological investigation of Sarcocystis spp. in slaughtered dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Egypt. Veterinary Sciences, 162(7):1-10.

Decker Franco, C., Schnittger, L. and Florin-Christensen, M. ( 2 0 1 8 ). Sarcocystis: Parasitic protozoa of farm animals and pets. Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70132-5_4

Decker Franco, C., Wieser, S. N., Soria, M., De Alba, P., Florin-Christensen, M. and Schnittger, L. (2019). In silicoidentification of immunotherapeutic and diagnostic targets in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol metabolism of the coccidian Sarcocystis aucheniae. Transbound Emerging Diseases, 00:1-10.

Romero, S. A., Carletti, T., Decker Franco, C., Moré, G., Schnittger, L., Florin-Christensen, M. (2017). Seropositivity to Sarcocystis infection of

llamas correlates with breeding practices. Veterinary Parasitology Regional Studies and Reports, 10:68–70.

Prakas, P., Strazdaitė-Žielienė, Z., Januš kevičius, V., Chiesa, F. ,Baranauskaitė, A., Rudaitytė-Lukošienė, E., Servienė, E., Petkevičius, S. and

Butkauskas, D. (2020). Molecularidentification of four Sarcocystis species in cattle from Lithuania, including S. hominis and development of a rapid molecular detection method. Parasites and Vectors, 610(13):1-9.

Coelho, C., Gomes, J., Inácio, J., Amaro, A., Mesquita, J. R., Pires, I., Lopes, A. P., Vieira-Pinto, M. (2015). UnravellingSarcocystis miescheriana and Sarcocystis suihominis infections in wild boar.Veterinary Parasitology, 212:100–104.

Morsy, K., Saleh, A., Al-Ghamdi, A., Abdel-Ghaffar, F., Al-Rasheid, K., Bashtar, A., Al Quraishy, S. andMehlhorn, H. (2011). Prevalence pattern

and biology of Sarcocystis capracanis infection in the Egyptian goats: A light and ultrastructural study. Veterinary Parasitology, 181(2-4):75-82.

Dafedar, A. M., Souza, P. E. D, Ananda, K. J. and Puttalakshmamma, G. C. (2008). Prevalence of Sarcocystosis in Goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Bangalore, Karnataka state. Veterinary World, 1(11): 335-337.

Latif, B. M. A., Al-Delemi, J. K.,Mohammed, B. S. Al-Bayati, S. M. and AlAmiry, A. M. (1999). Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in meat-producing animals in Iraq. Veterinary Parasitology, 84(1–2):85-90.

Anvari, D., Narouei, E., Hosseini, M., Narouei, M. R. , Daryani, A . , Shariatzadeh, S. A., Pagheh, A. S., Gholami, S., Sarvi, S., Sargazi, D., Saberi,

R., Hosseini, S. A. and Siyadatpanah, A.(2020). Sarcocystosis in ruminants of Iran, as neglected food-borne disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Parasitologica,https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00210-5

Published

2023-03-01

How to Cite

Obadiah, H. I., Byanet, O., Byanet, O., Okoh, M. E., Ogbole, M. O., Vambe, A. H., … Omudu, E. A. (2023). Prevalence of Sarcocystis Species in Naturally Infected Ruminants and Pigs in Benue State, Nigeria: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njpar.v44i1.17. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 44(1), 169–178. Retrieved from https://njpar.com.ng/index.php/home/article/view/134

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.