Molecular Evaluation of <i>Entamoeba gingivalis</i> and <i>Trichomonas tenax</i> Isolated from Orthodontic Patients in Maysan Province, Iraq.


  • E. Mushtaq Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Misan, Maysan, Iraq.
  • A. K. Al-Abboodi Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Misan, Maysan, Iraq.



TYGM-9, nested PCR, Trichomonas tenax, Entamoeba gingivalis, orthodontic


Entamoeba gingivalis (E. gingivalis) and Trichomonas tenax (T. tenax) are two species of parasitic protozoans that inhabit the human buccal cavity. Poor hygiene increases infection with these parasites. There has recently been a need to use orthodontics, despite its benefits, but the damage caused by orthodontics cannot be overlooked. The current study aims to assess the prevalence of oral parasites among individuals who use orthodontic appliances (fixed and mobile). The study included 200 participants, 100(76 females and 24 males) orthodontics patients, and 100(75 females and 25 males) non-orthodontics participants (control). Gathered one pair of swabs from each participant for microscopic analysis, culture, and implementation of the nested PCR method. Chi-square and Fisher’s tests were conducted to identify any statistically significant connection between parasitic infections and orthodontic treatments. The findings indicated that orthodontic patients had elevated infection rates with these parasites. Specifically, the infection rate of E. gingivalis in orthodontic patients was more infected (47%) than in non-orthodontic subjects (25%) which were the control. The prevalence of T. tenax was only 2.0% in the orthodontic patients while it was 1.0% in the control group. The prevalence rates of both parasites (E. gingivalis and T. tenax) in the orthodontic patients exhibited the highest prevalence of 19% and 16% respectively among the control subjects. The study found a significant correlation between infection and orthodontic applications at P= 0.01. The effects of other factors on oral parasite infection such as (sex, age, and orthodontic type) were also studied and compared between the two groups. 


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How to Cite

Mushtaq, E., & Al-Abboodi, A. K. (2024). Molecular Evaluation of <i>Entamoeba gingivalis</i> and <i>Trichomonas tenax</i> Isolated from Orthodontic Patients in Maysan Province, Iraq. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 45(1), 77–85.

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